Researchers at RGHRI
Michael Pichichero, MD
Director, Rochester General Hospital Research Institute
Dr. Michael E. Pichichero is a physician-scientist, trained and board certified in pediatrics, pediatric infectious diseases and adult and pediatric allergy/immunology. His career has been as a clinical and translational vaccine immunobiologist. He brings the experience of a continuously funded investigator by NIH since 1981. He has received over $70 million in federal, foundation, association and industry grants and he has >300 peer reviewed publications; 150 in the field of vaccines and vaccine immunobiology pertaining to pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, rotavirus, influenza, tularemia, botulism, and H. influenzae type b, pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate and candidate nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae protein candidate vaccines, and 65 in the field of acute otitis media (AOM). Dr. Pichichero was on the discovery team at the University of Rochester that invented the H. influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. His role was candidate antigen identification, evaluation of mucosal and serum antibody responses and clinical trial supervision for prototype conjugate vaccines. In 2005, Dr. Pichichero returned to the bench, recruited 3 PhD scientists and a post-doc to launch a focused research team dedicated to vaccine immunobiology in children. He left the Univ. of Rochester in 2009 to accept a new position across town as Director of the Rochester General Hospital Research Institute (RGHRI).
Dr. Pichichero’s lab is focused on prospective, longitudinal clinical and translational studies of acute otitis media (AOM) (R01 DC 08671). His group seeks to define the adaptive and innate immune response deficits among otitis prone (OP) children to infections caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn). They seek to understand the immunity deficits among OP children in the context of overcoming the immune modulating effects of upper respiratory viral infections. To better understand NTHi and Spn pathogenesis and assist in vaccine development they are: (1) identifying specific adaptive immune deficits in OP children; (2) determining independent contributions of mucosal immunity in OP children; (3) understanding the role of innate responses to co-infection of respiratory bacteria and viruses; and (4) defining the role of differences in the nasopharyngeal (NP) inflammatory response in shaping the mucosal microenvironment to allow for NTHi/Spn colonization and then infection.
In 2011, Dr. Pichichero’s group discovered the most common immunodeficiency of children (occurring in about 5% of 6 to 24 month olds) they termed Prolonged Neonatal Immune Profile (PNIP). They found that PNIP children have even lower antibody and antigen-specific memory T-cell responses than normal young children to multiple vaccines. Their immune profile appears similar to neonates, leaving them even more susceptible to multiple vaccine- preventable infections. The differences in the immune responses of PNIP children and normal and other low vaccine responder young children may be attributable to multiple factors. The group plans to further characterize the immunologic differences of adaptive immune responses, interactions among immunity effector cells, and mechanisms that contribute to the more limited immune responses to vaccines in normal, low vaccine responders and PNIP young children. Their focus will be on CD4 T-cell, B cell and APC cell responses with respect to activation, function and long-term persistence (memory) after routine pediatric vaccinations, comparing normal, low vaccine responders and PNIP children. The ultimate goal is to understand the key characteristics of immunity in young children that might be augmented by new rational vaccine design and addition of adjuvants to overcome the lack of response and need for multiple vaccine doses to establish protection from disease and lifelong immunity.
View Dr. Michael Pichichero's recent publications
Saleem Basha, PhD
Research Scientist I
Dr. Saleem is a Research Scientist I, trained in the fields of microbiology, molecular biology and immunology. His research is to identify the mechanisms of generation of immunological memory and long term humoral immunity. Understanding the mechanism of generation and expansion of T- and B- memory cells is crucial to develop new vaccines for the prevention and treatment of infectious disease particularly in young children with immunological disorders. Dr. Saleem works with human samples to identify the cellular and molecular interactions regulating the survival of memory T- and B-cells and their responses to vaccines. His previous work at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical center identified antibody and T-cell responses to influenza vaccines in humans. His current research interest is to identify the mechanism of immune dysfunction and maturational delay in adaptive immune system in young children with a Prolonged Neonatal Immune Profile (PNIP). Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to immune dysfunction will provide an opportunity to design future vaccines to combat current and newly emerging infectious diseases.
Dr. Saleem Basha's recent publications
Ravinder Kaur, PhD
Research Scientist II
Dr. Kaur is a Research Scientist I trained in the fields of microbiology & immunology. Her research focuses on pathogenesis and immunology involving the bacterial pathogens S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Dr. Kaur works with human samples to understand differential expression of virulence determinants by these respiratory pathogens when they colonize the nasopharynx and progress to acute otitis media in children. She seeks to identify whether vaccine candidate proteins of S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae would be targets for immune responses occurring at the site of colonization compared to the site of infection. The microbiome of the nasopharynx and innate and adaptive immune responses may modulate protein expression by these respiratory bacteria; differences may exist between humans prone to such infections compared to those who resist infection more effectively.
Dr. Ravinder Kaur's recent publications
Dabin Ren, PhD, MD
Research Scientist I
Dr. Ren has received training in molecular biology, microbiology, and medicine. His research interests are evaluating the immunologic property and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates and exploring the host-pathogen interactions for otitis media. His current studies include: 1) Investigating the human innate immune responses to respiratory tract pathogens, Streptococcus Pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. 2) Assessing the immunogenicity of Moraxella catarrhalis vaccine candidates in children. 3) Determining the functional activity of the antibodies against Streptococcus Pneumoniae in children.
View Dr. Dabin Ren's recent publications
Naveen Surendran, BVSc., PhD
Research Scientist I
Dr. Surendran’s research focuses on the human innate immune responses against infectious diseases. His doctorate was in Immunology and Microbiology with a specific focus on dendritic cell (DC) biology and vaccine development. During his post-doctoral fellowship at the Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland he studied the three way interactions between dendritic cells, natural killer cells and γδ- T cells and DC mediated T-follicular helper cell generation and its critical role in inducing long term B cell memory responses. As a Research Scientist at RGHRI, Dr. Surendran is studying innate immunity and responses to vaccines in newborns and infants. Early immunization is required to protect infants but is limited by the immaturity of the immune system. Innate immunity is central to all immunity as it instructs adaptive immunity to subsequently generate vaccine memory. Methods to overcome the innate immune deficit at birth have been long sought. Although there are intrinsic defects in neonatal B and T cells, it has been shown by our group and others that in vitro addition of adult antigen presenting cells (APCs) can restore antigen specific B- and T cell activation/memory responses in neonates. Dr. Surendran seeks to elucidate the exact nature of signals required to induce neonatal/infant APCs to effectively stimulate adaptive B and T cell responses.
Qingfu Xu, PhD
Research Scientist II
Dr. Xu is a Research Scientist II, trained in the fields of veterinary medicine, animal physiology & biochemistry, cellular & molecular biology and microbiology & immunology. He has had 15 years of research experience with more than 50 publications in peer-reviewed journals. He was working on transcriptional regulation of animal growth hormone receptor gene expression and development of genetic vaccines against potential biodefense agents such as botulism, anthrax, pneumonia and tularemia. His current research interests include (1) mucosa immune response to bacterial pathogens of bacterial respiratory tract infection; (2) bacterial-bacterial, bacterial-viral interactions in the nasopharynx and middle ear of young children with respiratory tract infection.
View Dr. Qingfu Xu's recent publications
Robert Zagursky (Zag), PhD
Zag is Manager and Research Scientist, trained in the fields of microbiology, immunology, vaccinology, protein structure and bioinformatics. He has 30 years’ of life science experience in industry of which 15 years were in human vaccine discovery at Wyeth/Pfizer where as a Research Fellow he took early retirement. Zag has a number of publications and patents. He currently also holds an appointment in the department of Immunology and Microbiology at URMC. His past research focused on the discovery of vaccine candidates to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis as well as development of a novel HIV vaccine candidate. Zag was on the discovery team at Wyeth that invented the first N. meningitidis type B vaccine approved in the USA. His current research involves deciphering the immune response to bacterial pathogens in the respiratory tract.
Matt Morris, PhD
Dr. Morris is a postdoctoral fellow with training in immunology and molecular biology. His current research project focuses on upper respiratory immunity in young children, specifically the role of T cell-B cell interactions in the tonsils and adenoids in ear infections and vaccine responses. Previously, he worked at Virginia Tech on intracellular signaling pathways governing the innate immune response to different doses of bacterial endotoxin. His long term interests are in host-pathogen relationships and immunotherapeutics.
Nadeem Khan, PhD
Dr Khan is a Research Scientist I, trained in infectious diseases and vaccine immunology with a particular interest in respiratory bacteria. He is currently investigating the role of host immunity in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization. His future research interest is to participate in translational research leading to a next generation pneumococcal vaccines to protect against pneumococcal infections.