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Gonadal & Menstrual Disorders

Personalized Hormone Therapy

Menstrual and gonadal disorders typically stem from hormone dysfunctions. The hormone experts at Rochester Regional Health’s Gonadal & Menstrual Disorders Center will create a customized hormone therapy plan for you, helping you minimize complications of gonadal disorders.

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Gonadal Disorders 

Everyone has gonads. Males have testes, or testicles, which are the male sex glands located behind the penis in a pouch of skin called the scrotum.  The testes both produce sperm and testosterone. Females have ovaries, a pair of reproductive glands located in the pelvis, one on each side of their uterus. They serve two functions—producing eggs and female hormones. 

Disorders of the gonads can lead to sexual dysfunction and/or infertility.


Hypogonadism is a deficiency in ovary or testicular function.

In Women

Hypogonadism in women manifests in three forms: 

  • Primary hypogonadism: involves poor ovary function, with your ovaries providing little to no estrogen
  • Central hypogonadism: typically caused by problems with the pituitary gland, which normally regulates ovary functioning.
  • Menopause: a form of hypogonadism that occurs naturally and can cause hot flashes, irritability, and vaginal dryness as estrogen levels fall. 

In Men

Hypogonadism in men involves poor testosterone and/or sperm production. In adults, hypogonadism can cause impotence, hair loss, infertility, and loss of libido.


Hypergonadism is a disorder in which your body has an abnormal elevation of reproductive hormones (either estrogen or testosterone). It can be caused by several things, including auto-immune disorders, genetic factors, and tumors. Typical symptoms for either gender are precocious puberty (early-onset), increase in libido, an increase in acne, and increased hair growth. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment for hypergonadism. 

Menstrual Disorders

Imbalances in estrogen, progesterone, or other hormones, usually cause menstrual disorders. Symptoms can include very light or very heavy periods, abnormally early or late onset of puberty, or absent periods. Menstrual disorders can affect ovulation, problems during pregnancy, and/or an early onset of menopause.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder common among women, causing irregular menstrual periods or excess male hormone levels. Your ovaries may fail to regularly release eggs and may develop small follicles (collections of fluid).

Symptoms of PCOS vary, and may include:

  • Excess male-pattern hair growth: extra male hormones may cause excess facial and body hair, male pattern baldness, and severe acne
  • Irregular periods: irregular, infrequent, or prolonged periods are the most common sign of PCOS
  • Polycystic ovaries: because your ovaries may be enlarged and follicles may form around eggs, your ovaries may fail to function regularly.
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Talk to a Gonadal or Menstrual Expert

If hormone imbalances are disrupting your life, our gonadal and menstrual disorder experts will create a customized therapy plan just for you.
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